Caldera Kelud
A height of 1.731 m (5.679 ft)

Kelud,  Mount Kelud(Gunung Kelud)is located in  Kediri,
East Java, Indonesia
Coordinates 7 ° 55’48 “S 112 ° 18’29” EKoordinat: 7 ° 55’48 “S 112 ° 18’29” E
Type Stratovolcano
Arc / belt of volcanic Ring of Fire

Rice fields in Blitar with background Kelud in the distance.
Kelud  be Kelut in the Java language; in Dutch called Klut, Cloot, Kloet, or Kloete) is a volcano in East Java province, Indonesia, which is classified as active. The mountain is located on the border between the district of Kediri, Blitar and Malang regency, about 27 km east of the center of Kediri.

As Mount Merapi, Kelud is one of the most active volcanoes in Indonesia. [1] Since the year 1000 AD, Kelud has erupted more than 30 times, with the biggest eruption of magnitude 5 Volcanic explosivity index (VEI). [2] The last eruption of Mt. kelud occurred in 2014. [3]

1 Morphology
2 Note Kelud activity
2.1 The eruption of 1901
2.2 The eruption of 1919
2.3 The eruption of 1951
2.4 The eruption of 1966
2.5 The eruption of 1990
2.6 The eruption of 2007
2.7 The eruption of 2014
3 tourist places Kelud
4 Dispute

*  Morphology
This volcano is included in the type of explosive eruption stratovulkan characteristics. Like many other volcanoes in Java, Kelud formed by the subduction of the Indo-Australian continental plate against the Eurasian plate. Since about the year 1300 AD, the mountain erupted active registered with distance range of a relatively short time (9-25 years), making it the volcanoes that are harmful to humans.

The peculiarities of this volcano is the crater lake, which is in a state of eruption of lava flow eruptions can produce in large quantities, and endangering the surrounding population. Phreatic eruption in 2007 led to the growing lava dome and clog the surface of the lake, so the crater lake almost gone, leaving a small puddle like a puddle of water. This lava dome was later destroyed in a large eruption in early 2014.

The tops of which there are now a remnant of an eruption of the past that brought down the top of the ancient. Wall on the southwest side open so complex collapsed crater open towards it. Kelud is the highest peak, positioned slightly to the northeast of the crater. Other peaks on the west side Gajahmungkur peak and peak chippy on the south side.

Kelud activity

Kelud 1901
Since the 15th century, Kelud has claimed more than 15,000 lives. This eruption in 1586 claimed the lives of more than 10,000 inhabitants. [4] A system to divert the lava flow has been made extensively in 1926 and still functioning until now after the eruption in 1919 killed up to thousands of lives as a result of cold lava floods swept settlements population.

In the 20th century, Kelud recorded erupted in 1901, 1919 (May 1 [5]), 1951 (August 31), 1966 (26 April), and 1990 (February 10-March 13). This pattern brings experts in cycle volcano eruption 15 years for this. Entering the 21st century, the mountain erupted in 2007 and 13 to 14 February 2014. This frequency change occurs due to the formation of lava plug at the mouth of the crater. Almost all recorded eruption that took place a short (2 days or less) and the type of explosive (VEI max. 4), except eruptions in 1990 and 2007.

The eruption in 1901
The night between 22 and May 23, 1901 big eruption occurred repeatedly, and rose at 03.00 am. Audible cracking noise reported from Pekalongan and ash reach the Bogor. A gust of hot clouds reported to Kediri. The number of casualties is expected quite a lot, but no record [6]

The eruption in 1919

Kelud 1919.
Kelud eruption in 1919 was recorded in the statement of Carl Wilhelm Wormser (1876 to 1946), court officials Landraad in Tulung Court (the Dutch colonial period), who witnessed natural disasters [7] [8].

“On May 20, 1919 afternoon, the sky suddenly dark. Loss of the sun made all living with fear and trembling. The rain of ash and rock fall. The villagers on the slopes of the mountain trying to save whatever can be saved: wealth and soul and pets . Everything is running to avoid the violence of nature. Run! Run where are you? Breathing even more difficult. The air is getting to strangle all of life. The sound of rustling closer and stronger. The lava flows destroyed everything and disturbing way out for people. Building and large trees broken into print- small tubs of matches. The crater spewed lava and ash and accompanied by a toxic gas cloud. Forests, land and rice fields covered in gray cloth. Dozens of villages disappeared from the map of the earth. Thousands of victims buried alive “.
The eruption of 1919 were among the most deadly since claimed 5,160 lives, damage to 15,000 hectares of productive land due to the lava flow reached 38 km, although in time the Rhinos have built retaining weir lava in 1905 [9]. In addition, Hugo Cool, a mining expert, in 1907 also assigned to digging a channel through the embankment or the western part of the crater wall. The effort was successfully issued 4.3 million cubic meters of water [10].

Because the eruption is then built tunnel drainage channel system crater lake, and was completed in 1926. Overall built seven tunnels.

The eruption in 1951

Kelud eruption in 1951.
On August 31, 1951, at 06.15 / 06:30, Kelud erupted (eruption) explosively. This huge eruption, a number of cities in Java affected by ashfall, including Yogyakarta and Surakarta and reached Bandung. Dark mood swept the cities affected, causing the school must dismiss their students and the extension services to stop the move.

The eruption in 1951 was the first to take place after the manufacture of drainage tunnels crater completed. Van Ijzendoorn, cartographer Head of Geology, conclude that the duct system is very helpful to reduce the impact of losses from the eruption [11].

Seven people were killed by the eruption of this, three of them officers volcano observer [11]. In addition, 157 people were injured. By the eruption of this addition, the lake bottom Kawau decreased so that the water volume increased to 50 million cubic meters [12].

The eruption in 1966
Major eruption occurred on 26 April 1966 at 20:15. About 210 more people were killed by the eruption of this [6]. Tunnel systems were severely damaged, so they invented a new tunnel 45 meters below the old tunnel. The tunnels were completed in 1967 was named the Ampera Tunnel. This channel serves to maintain the volume of the crater lake so stable at the rate of 2.5 million cubic meters [9].

The eruption in 1990
The eruption in 1990 lasted 45 days, ie February 10, 1990 until March 13, 1990. In this eruption, Kelud spewed 57.3 million cubic meters of volcanic material. Cold lava spread up to 24 kilometers from the crater lake through 11 rivers that disgorge in the mountain.

This eruption was closed Ampera tunnel with volcanic material. Normalization process was completed in 1994.

The eruption in 2007
The eruption in 2007 was considered “deviant” from the basic behavior Kelud because phreatic eruption type (leleran with small eruptions) not explosive as previous eruptions. In addition, this eruption produced a lava dome-shaped stopper which causes the “lost” its crater lake.

This volcanic activity increased in late September 2007 and continued until November of the same year, marked by increasing the water temperature of the crater lake, an increase in seismic tremors, and changes in the crater lake of greenish color becomes white turbid. Status “alert” (highest) issued by the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation since October 16, 2007 which implicates the population within a radius of 10 km from the mountain (approximately 135,000 people) living on the slopes of the volcano to evacuate. However, the eruption did not occur.

Having had somewhat subsided, Kelud activity again increased since October 30, 2007 with a rapid increase in water temperature of the crater lake and shallow volcanic earthquake. On November 3, 2007 around 16:00 the lake water temperature exceeds 74 degrees Celsius, well above the normal symptoms of the eruption at 40 degrees Celsius, causing the temperature gauge was broken. Tremor tremor with a large amplitude (more than 35mm) causing inspectors to be displaced, but returned no eruption.

Due to the high activity of these symptoms occur uniquely in the history Kelud with the advent of thick white smoke from the middle of the lake crater followed by a lava dome on the middle of the crater lake since November 5, 2007 and continued to “grow” up to size width of 100 m. Experts consider this a lava dome that clog the magma channel so that the eruption was not imminent. Energy to be used to encourage the eruption of lava dome eruption remainder of 1990.

Since the incident energy release activity on the wane, and on November 8, 2007 Kelud status downgraded to “standby” (level 3).

Kelud crater lake practically “disappeared” because of the emergence of lava dome with a diameter of 469 m [13] and a volume of 16.2 million cubic meters. What was left was a small pool of water was murky brown on the south side of the lava dome.

The eruption in 2014
The main article for this section are: Kelud eruption in 2014

Volcanic ash from the eruption in 2014 that reached Yogyakarta.
Kelud eruption in 2014 was considered more powerful than in 1990. [14] although it only lasts no more than two days and takes 4 fatalities due to follow-up event, not a direct result of the eruption [15].

Increased activity has been detected at the end of 2013 [16]. However, the situation calmed down. Only then announced an increase in status from Normal to Alert since February 2, 2014. [17].

On February 10, 2014, Kelud raised its status to Standby and then on February 13 at 21:15 declared the highest danger status, Awas (Level IV) [18], so that a radius of 10 km from the summit must be emptied of human beings. Only in less than two hours, at 22:50 there has been a first eruption type of explosion (explosive). Eruption type of explosive as in 1990 (in 2007 the type effusive, in the form of magma flow) causes rain gravel fairly dense felt by residents in the District of Ngancar, Kediri, East Java, location of the famous volcano is active it is, and even up to city ​​Pare, Kediri [19]. The District of Wates used as destinations evacuation of people living within a radius of up to 10 kilometers of the lava dome, according to the recommendations of the Center for Volcanology, Mitigation and Geological Disaster (PVMBG). [20] The sound of explosions reportedly heard throughout the city of Solo and Yogyakarta (within 200 km from the eruption center) [21], even Purbalingga (approximately 300 km), Central Java [22].

Impact of volcanic ash form on February 14, 2014 early morning residents have reportedly reached Ponorogo. In Yogyakarta, observed almost the entire territory covered in volcanic ash that is sufficiently dense, exceeding the volcanic ash from Merapi in 2010. The thickness of volcanic ash in the region of Yogyakarta and Sleman even estimated at more than 2 centimeters. [23] The impact of the volcanic ash also leads to the West Java and reportedly has reached Ciamis, Bandung and some other areas in West Java. [24] [25] In the area of ​​Madiun and Magetan visibility for motorists or car is only about 3-5 meters due to falling volcanic ash from the eruption of Mount Kelud The so many motor vehicles are running very slowly.
A man sweeping the streets of Yogyakarta ash during the eruption of Kelud 2014
Ash fall from the eruption of crippling Java. [26] Seven airports in Yogyakarta, Surakarta, Surabaya, Malang, Semarang, Cilacap and Bandung, were closed. [27] The financial loss from the closure of the airport were assessed billions of rupiah, including about 2 billion at the Airport International Juanda in Surabaya. [28] significant damage due to a variety of manufacturing and agricultural industries. Due to ash fall, companies such as Unilever Indonesia have difficulty distributing their products throughout the affected area. Apple orchard in Batu, East Java, posted a loss of up to USD 17.8 billion, while the dairy industry in this province posted a loss of height. [29]

Condition of the mountain after a night eruption is gradually calm, and on February 20, 2014 lowered the activity status of Awas into Standby (level III) by PVMBG [30]. Furthermore, on February 28, 2014 back down to Alert status (Level II) [31]. As a result of this eruption, dome clogging the discharge path of lava destroyed and Kelud has a dry crater [13] [32]. It is possible to form a crater lake back after a few years.

In early March a large portion of the 12 304 buildings were destroyed or damaged during the eruption has been improved, with an estimated cost of Rp 55 billion. [33]

Tourist attraction Kelud [Edit | edit source]

Kelud 2012. The lava dome in 2007 appeared in the middle, with a peak Kelud background. On the left is part of the Peak Gajahmungkur.
Towards the top of Mount Kelud region since 2004 relations have improved roads to facilitate the tourists as well as residents. Kelud has become a tourist attraction Kediri Regency to the main attractions are the lava dome. In peak viewing post Gajahmungkur built with a staircase made of cement. On weekend nights, the lava dome lighting the lamp colorful [34]. Moreover, it has also provided a rock climbing lane at the top chippy, thermal baths, as well as the flying fox.

Kediri Regency actions build these protests tourist area of ​​Blitar, which considers the territory a peak Kelud territory [35]. This territorial dispute mainly tapered after the fall of East Java Governor Decree No. 188/113 / KPTS / 013/2012 which states that Kelud peak area is the district of Kediri.

Dispute [Edit | edit source]
Kelud dispute over the ownership status has occurred since long between Kediri and Blitar regency. Both sides, both Kediri and Blitar regency both claim to ownership Kelud. In 2012, the East Java governor issued a decree East Java Governor stating that ownership Kelud administration in the territory of Kediri Regency Government. Upon release of the decree, the government sued Blitar of East Java Governor to the Administrative Court. The lawsuit Blitar administrative court finally rejected in late 2012. After the great eruption of Mount Kelud in early 2014, the status of Kelud back into the dispute between the two sides. Soekarwo eventually revoke the decree Ownership Kelud in early 2015 and hand over this issue to the Ministry of Interior. [36




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