EXTENSIVE READING

 

A reading is a receptive skill, a lesson based around the comprehension of a reading text is similar in many ways to that  designed to another receptive skill, listening. Reading is part of the language acquisition.  It makes students more or less understand what they read, Continue reading

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

We use the Present Continuous to talk about something is happening at or close to the time of speaking.

Ex: She’s watching TV in the living room now.

Form: Subject + verb to be + main verb with ING +

I                am                     watching

When do we use the Present Continuous?

a) For Incomplete Actionsactions that are happening around the time of speaking. Adverbs like now, at present, at this moment, can appear in the sentence.

Ex: I am listening music now.

b) A Future Arrangement The Present Continuous can express an action that will happen in a definite future. Adverbs like soon, today, tonight, this week, this afternoon, tomorrow can be used in the sentences.

Ex: She is working soon. / They are playing Music at the concert tonight.

c) A Frequent RepetitionIt gives you the idea of an annoying situation. Adverbs like always, constantly, … can be used in the sentences.

Ex: She is always complaining about money.

d) A Future Programmed ArrangementWhen you have intention to do something.

Ex: I am moving to a new apartment in two weeks.

e) With Progressive Changing and Developing Situations

Ex: The population of the world is increasing very fast.

NOTE

When we add ING to the verb we have to analyze its ending. If it ends in:

Eit loses the E and the ING is added         =   live, living  /  make, making

Yjust the ING is added                             =   study, studying  /  play, playing

IE it loses the IE and the YING is added   =   die, dying  /  lie, lying

When a verb ends in consonant / vowel / consonant and the stressed syllable is the last one, we double the last consonant and add ING.

Ex: begin – beginning

VERB TO HAVE

· The verb To Have doesn’t take the ING when it has the meaning of ” possess” .

Ex: I am having a stomachache. (wrong)

I have a stomachache. (right)

· In expressions like: TO HAVE LUNCH and TO HAVE FUN you can have the Continuous.

Ex: What’s he doing? He’s having lunch.

PS: The Interrogative and Negative Forms are made with the verb to be.

Ex: She is learning how to dance. /  Is she learning how to dance? /  She isn’t learning how to dance.

PRESENT SIMPLE – VERB TO BE

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I am

I am not

Am I?

You are

You are not

Are you?

He is

He is not

Is he?

She is

She is not

Is she?

It is

It is not

Is it?

We are

We are not

Are we?

You are

You are not

Are you?

They are

They are not

Are they?

Ex: She is a student.

Ex: She is not a student.

To make the negative form, add not after the verb.

Ex: Is she a student?

To make the interrogative, put the verb before the subject.

Note: The verb To Be doesn’t need any auxiliary to make the negative and interrogative forms.

In the Affirmative you can have contractions between the verb and the pronoun. In the Negative you can have contractions between the verb and not. The Interrogative form doesn’t have any contraction.

Affirmative

Negative

I‘m

I am not (no contraction)

You‘re

You aren’t

He‘s

He isn’t

She‘s

She isn’t

It‘s

It isn’t

We‘re

We aren’t

You‘re

You aren’t

They‘re

They aren’t

Ex: He’s my English student.

Ex: He isn’t my English student.

When someone asks you something, you can answer in two ways:

Short Answer

Complete Answer

Are you a teacher?                                   No, I’m not.

Is she your friend?                                 No, she isn’t.

Are you a teacher?                           No, I’m not a teacher.

Is she your friend?                            No, she isn’t my friend.

Note:

  • You can’t have a contraction at the end of a positive answer.                         Ex: A: Is she a lawyer?   –   B: Yes, she’s. (wrong) / Yes, she is. (right)
  • You can have a contraction at the end of a negative answer.                           Ex: A: Is she a lawyer?   –   B: No, she isn’t.

SIMPLE PRESENT

DO / DOES

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I watch TV.

I don’t watch TV.

Do I watch TV?

You watch TV.

You don’t watch TV.

Do you watch TV?

He watches TV.

He doesn’t watch TV.

Does he watch TV?

She watches TV.

She doesn’t watch TV.

Does she watch TV?

It watches TV.

It doesn’t watch TV.

Does it watch TV?

We watch TV.

We don’t watch TV.

Do we watch TV?

You watch TV.

You don’t watch TV.

Do you watch TV?

They watch TV.

They don’t watch TV.

Do they watch TV?

NOTES:

  • DO / DOES are used in the Simple Present Tense in the Negative and Interrogative form when we don’t have Verb TO BE in the sentence .
  • For I, YOU, WE, THEY use DO / DON’T.
  • For HE, SHE, IT ( = 3rd person) use DOES / DOESN’T.
  • In the affirmative S / ES or IES is added to the verb in the 3rd person, but in the Negative and in the Interrogative the verb loses it because there’s the auxiliary verb (DOES / DOESN’T) indicating the 3rd person.

Example:

Affirmative She loves Michael. (She = 3rd person) Negative She doesn’t love Michael.

Interrogative – Does she love Michael?

  • When you ask a question with the auxiliary verb DO / DOES, you answer the question with DO / DOES too.

There are two types of answers:

Complete answer: Ex: A: Do you like sausages?   –   B: Yes, I like sausages.

Short Answer: Ex: A: Do you like sausages?   –   B: Yes, I do.

The 3rd Person

        Generally, in the Simple Present Tense an S is added to the verb in the 3rd person (He, She, It).

Ex: I dance – She dances

        When the verb ends in Y preceded by a consonant, it loses the Y and an IES is added to the verb.

Ex: I study – She studies

When the verb ends in Y preceded by a vowel just add an S to it.

Ex: I play – She plays.

When the verb ends in SS, SH, CH, X, Z, add ES to it.

Ex: I kiss She kisses

I brush She brushes

I watch She watches

I fix She fixes

They buzz It buzzes

When the verb ends in O preceded by a consonant, add ES to it.

Ex: I do – She does

When the verb ends in O preceded by a vowel, add S to it.

Ex: I radio – She radios